Justice Workers

A volunteer and later formal probation officer in the "colored juvenile court," of Memphis, TN.

Julia B. Hooks (1842-1952), probation officer, “colored juvenile court,” Memphis, TN.

These studies examine the scope and significance of racial and ethnic group representation in legal and law enforcement fields. My interests in this justice workforce stem from historical expectations that equal protection under law would depend upon representation and recognition among legal authorities. The studies generally pursue a theoretical and empirical analysis of this deliberative ideal of “racially democratic” social control.


Geoff Ward and Peter Hanink (2017). “Deliberating Racial Justice: Towards Racially Democratic Crime Control.” Handbook of Criminal Justice Ethics, J. Jackson and J. Jacobs (eds.). New York: Routledge.

Amy Farrell and Geoff Ward (2011). “Examining District Variation in Sentencing in the Post-Booker Period.” Federal Sentencing Reporter vol. 23, n. 5.

Geoff Ward, Aaron Kupchik, Laurin Parker, and Brian Starks (2011). “Racial Politics of Juvenile Justice Policy Support:Juvenile Court Worker Orientations Towards Disproportionate Minority Confinement.” Race and Justice vol. 1, n. 2.

Amy Farrell, Geoff Ward, and Danielle Rousseau (2010). “Intersections of Gender and Race in Federal Sentencing: Examining Court Contexts and the Effects of Representative Court Authorities.” Journal of Gender, Race & Justice vol. 14, n. 1.

Geoff Ward and Aaron Kupchik (2010). “What Drives Juvenile Probation Officers? Relating Organizational Contexts, Status Characteristics, and Personal Convictions toTreatment and Punishment Orientations.” Crime and Delinquency vol. 56, n. 1.

Geoff Ward, Amy Farrell, and Danielle Rousseau (2009). “Does Racial Balance in WorkforceRepresentation Yield Equal Justice? Race Relations of Sentencing in Federal Court Organizations.” Law & Society Review vol. 43, n. 4.

Geoff Ward and Aaron Kupchik (2009). “Accountable to What? Professional Orientations Towards Accountability-Based Juvenile Justice.” Punishment & Societyvol. 11, n. 1.

Amy Farrell, Geoff Ward and Danielle Rousseau (2009). “Race Effects of Representation among Federal Court Workers: Does Black Workforce Representation Reduce Sentencing Disparities?” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science vol. 623.

Geoff Ward (2006) “Race and the Justice Workforce: A System Perspective.” In R. Peterson, L. Krivo, and J. Hagan (eds.) The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity and Crime in America. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Geoff Ward (2004) “Punishing for a Living: More on the Cementing of Prisons.” Social Justice Vol. 31, Nos. 1–2.


Related Initiatives & Affiliations

» Racial Democracy, Crime, and Justice Research Network

A national consortium working to (1) advance research on issues of citizenship and democratic participation at the intersection of race, crime, and justice; and (2) promote racial/ethnic democratization of academe by supporting junior scholars of color (racial/ethnic minorities) in advancing their academic careers.