Latina/o PathwayThe Latina/o Pathway to the Ph.D.
Abriendo Caminos

Edited by Jeanett Castellanos , Alberta M. Gloria , Mark Kamimura
Foreword by Melba Vasquez , Hector Garza

The Latina/o population constitutes the largest racial and ethnic minority group in the U.S. and is disproportionately under-represented in college and in graduate programs.

This is the first book specifically to engage with the absence of Latinas/os in doctoral studies. It proposes educational and administrative strategies to open up the pipeline, and institutional practices to ensure access, support, models and training for Latinas/os aspiring to the Ph.D.

The under-education of Latina/o youth begins early. Given that by twelfth grade half will stop out or be pushed out of high school, and only seven percent will complete a college degree, it is not surprising so few enter graduate studies. When Latina/o students do enter higher education, few attend those colleges or universities that are gateways to graduate degrees. Regardless of the type of higher education institution they attend, Latinas/os often encounter social and academic isolation, unaffordable costs, and lack of support.

This historic under-representation has created a vicious cycle of limited social and economic mobility. There is a paucity of the Latina/o faculty and leaders whom research shows are essential for changing campus climate and influencing institutions to adapt to the needs of a changing student body. As a result, Latina/o graduate students often have few role models, advocates or mentors, and limited support for their research agendas.

By reviewing the pipeline from kindergarten through university, this book provides the needed data and insights to effect change for policy makers, administrators, faculty, and staff; and material for reflection for aspiring Latina/o Ph.D.s on the paths they have taken and the road ahead.

The book then addresses the unique experiences and challenges faced by Latina/os in doctoral programs, and offers guidance for students and those responsible for them. Chapters cover issues of gender and generational differences, the role of culture in the graduate school, mentorship, pursuing research, and professional development opportunities for Latina/os.

The book closes with the voices of by Latina/o students who are currently pursuing or recently completed their doctoral degree. These narratives describe their cultural and educational journeys, providing insight into their personal and professional experiences. These stories bring alive the graduate experience for anyone interested in successful recruitment, retention, and graduation of Latina/o doctoral students – an inspiration and guidance to those aspiring to the doctorate.

Jeanett Castellanos is Director of the Academic Resource Center and a Lecturer for the Department of Social Sciences and Chicano Studies at the University of California, Irvine.

Alberta M. Gloria is a full professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Mark Kamimura is a doctoral student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Foreword–Melba Vasquez, Ph.D.; Foreword– Hector Garza, Ph.D.; Book overview and theory structure–Alberta M. Gloria, Jeanett Castellanos, and Mark Kamimura; El Camino Recorrido / The Road Traveled: K-8-Patricia D. Quijada; High school–Milton Fuentes; Latinos and community colleges: A pathway to graduate studies?–Alfredo de los Santos and Gerardo E. de los Santos; League of Innovation in the Community College: An assessment of Hispanic students in four-year institutions of higher education–Amaury Nora, Libby Barlow and Gloria Crisp;Masters degree–Mark Clark; Navegando el Camino / Navigating the Roadway: The Latina/o Ph.D. pipeline: A case of historical & contemporary underrepresentation–Frances Contreras and Patricia Gándara; Latinas and the doctorate: The “status” of attainment and experience from the margin–Tara Watford, Martha A. Rivas, Rebeca Burciaga, Daniel Solorzano; Bridging two worlds: Academia and Latina/o identity–Vasti Torres; Differences and similarities: Latina and Latino doctoral students navigating the gender divide–Aída Hurtado and Mrinal Sinha; Graduate student experience: A PCS perspective– Alberta M. Gloria and Jeanett Castellanos; Aprendiendo de los Pasajeros / Learning from the Passengers: Enculturation to being a doctoral student–Mark Kamimura; Manteniendo nuestra cultura (Sustaining our culture): Cultural and social adjustments of Latina/os in doctoral programs–Rocio Rosales; Maintaining a strong Latino identity while balancing trails–Raul Ramirez; Creating and maintaining family–Theresa Segura-Herrera; Juggling intellectuality and Latino masculinity: La calle, mi familia y la escuela–Claudio Vera Sanchez; The brown diamond–Marisa Garcia; Collegial alliances? Exploring one Chicano’s perspective on mentoring into research and academia– David Alberto Quijada; Being Latina and ABD: Cuando terminas mujer?! (When will you finish?!)–Petra Guerra; Conclusions/integrating of doctoral process–Alberta M. Gloria, Jeanett Castellanos, and Mark Kamimura

Featured at the 1st American Association of Hispanic Higher Education Conference in San Antonio, Texas, (2006).

“This edited volume gives the reader both sound theoretical pieces and the authentic voices of Latinos students. It would make an excellent addition to the libraries of scholars, practioners, and higher education institutions interested Latina/o demographics, educational achievement and personal acounts of the struggles and successes that these students have had, and continue to experience.” —Frank Hernandez (2006) , Journal of College Student Development

“Diversifying professionals, researchers, and faculty in higher education with Latina/o talent continues to be a goal of many who work in graduate recruitment, graduate student support, and the preparation of undergraduates for advanced degrees. This book provides important information about the realities Latina/os face as replacement of the ranks in higher education is occurring and the Latina/o population is increasing. We need to take the insights presented here to develop more intentional activities to prepare the next generation of Latino doctoral recipients.” —Sylvia Hurtado, Professor and Director of the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles

“This is an insightful account of how the pathway to Hispanic higher education success is paved with familia, cultura, y identidad étnica in 21st Century America. It is also a compelling call to action for the advancement of a more prosperous and just civil society that fully taps on the intellectual and creative talents of Latinos/as.” —Antonio Flores, President of the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities

“No one ever earns a doctorate alone– family, friends, colleagues, and mentors all play a role. This book charts the many paths to achievement by highlighting what it also means to be Latina/o in today’s America. It is an important contribution.” —Earl Lewis, Provost and Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs and the Asa Griggs Candler Professor of History and African American Studies at Emory University

“Combining facts, scholarly assessments and the vibrant perspectives of doctoral candidates, this book guides readers along the Ph.D. pathway taken, and still to be pursued, by many Latino doctorates. Increasing the successful participation of the country’s fastest growing community–the Latino community–is a pressing challenge for higher education. This book serves as an important resource to anyone who seeks to meet this challenge.” —Sarita E. Brown, President, Excelencia in Education.


Majority in the Minority

The Majority in the Minority
Expanding the Representation of Latina/o Faculty, Administrators and Students in Higher Education

Edited by Jeanett Castellanos and Lee Jones
Foreword by Laura I. Rendón

Twenty-four Latina/o scholars here provide an historical background; review issues of student access and achievement, and lessons learned; and present the problems of status and barriers faced by administrators and faculty. The narratives by graduate students, administrators and faculty complement the essays and vividly bring these issues to life.

Jeanett Castellanos is Director of the Academic Resource Center and a Lecturer for the Department of Social Sciences and Chicano Studies at the University of California, Irvine.

Lee Jones is Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Instruction and Associate Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at the College of Education, The Florida State University.

Foreword: Laura Rendón; Introduction: Lee Jones and Jeanett Castellanos; Chapter 1, Latina/o Undergraduate Experiences in American Higher Education: Jeanett Castellanos and Lee Jones; Chapter 2, Historical Perspectives on Latino Access to Higher Education, 1848-1990: Victoria-María MacDonald and Teresa García; PART ONE: UNDERGRADUATE EXPERIENCES AND RETENTION: Chapter 3, Access to Higher Education for Hispanic Students – Real or Illusory: Amaury Nora; Chapter 4, Latino/a and African American Students at Predominantly White Institutions – A Psychosociocultural Perspective of Cultural Congruity and Climate and Academic Persistence; Alberta Gloria and Jeanett Castellanos; Chapter 5, Active Faculty Involvement – Maximizing Student Achievement Efforts: Guadalupe Anaya and Darnell Cole; PART TWO: STUDENT VOICES: Chapter 6, Reflections of a Latina Graduate Student Experience: Katherine Nerona; Chapter 7, Notes from a Latino Graduate Student Experience at a PWI: Raymond Herrera; Chapter 8, Latina Undergraduate Student: Veronica Orozco; Chapter 9, Latina/o Retention in Four-Year Universities: Sylvia Hurtado; PART THREE: LATINO ADMINISTRATORS’ EXPERIENCES AND RETENTION: Chapter 10, Latinos and Administrative Positions in American Higher Education: Roberto Haro and Juan Francisco Lara; PART FOUR: LATINO FACULTY EXPERIENCES AND RETENTION: Chapter 11, Barriers to Accessing the Professoriate: Raymond Padilla; Chapter 12, Latino/a Faculty and the Tenure Process in Cultural Context: Robert Ibarra and Jeanett Castellanos; Chapter 13, Latina Faculty in Higher Education: Patricia Arredondo; Chapter 14, Scholarship, Community Service and Job Status – The Hispanic Professoriate: Richard Verdugo; Chapter 15, Developmental Career Challenges for Latino/a Faculty in Higher Education: Lisa Flores, Alberta Gloria, Patricia Arredondo and Jeanett Castellanos; Chapter 16, A Structure that Facilitates the Recruitment and Retention of Latinos/as in Higher Education: Jeanett Castellanos and Lee Jones.