Microglial depletion prevents extracellular matrix changes and striatal volume reduction in a model of Huntington's disease.
Crapser J, Ochaba J, Soni N, Reidling JC, Thompson LM, and Green KNBrain 2020 Jan 1;143(1):266-288 Click Here to Download

Microglial activation increases cocaine self-administration following adolescent nicotine exposure.
Linker KE, Elabd MG, Tawadrous P, Cano M, Green KN, Wood MA, Leslie FM. Nature Communications 11, Article number: 306 (2020) Click Here to View

Microglia influence host defense, disease, and repair following murine coronavirus infection of the central nervous system.
Mangale V, Syage AR, Ekiz HA, Skinner DD, Cheng Y, Stone CL, Brown RM, O'Connell RM, Green KN, Lane TE. Glia. 2020 May 25:10.1002/glia.23844. doi: 10.1002/glia.23844. Click Here to View

Microglia facilitate loss of perineuronal nets in the Alzheimer’s disease brain.
Crapser JD, Spangenberg EE, Barahona RA, Arreola MA, Hohsfield LA, and Green KN. EBioMedicine, 2020 Jul 31;58:102919. Click Here to View

To kill a microglia: A case for CSF1R inhibitors.
Green KN, Crapser JD, and Hohsfield LA. Trends in Immunology, In Press Click Here to Download

Aging and Progression of Beta-Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Correlates with Microglial Heme-Oxygenase-1 Overexpression.
Fernández-Mendívil C, Arreola MA, Hohsfield LA, Green KN*, and Lopez MG*. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 644. *corresponding author Click Here to View

Effects of long-term replacement of the microglial tissue with peripheral bone-marrow derived myeloid cells on the neuronal landscape and cognition. Hohsfield LA, Najafi AR, Ghorbanian Y, Soni N, Hingco EE, Kim SJ, Jue AD, Swarup V, Inlay MA, and Green KNJournal of Neuroinflammation2020 Sep 20;17(1):279 Click Here To Download



Sustained microglial depletion with CSF1R inhibitor impairs parenchymal plaque development in an Alzheimer’s disease model.
Spangenberg EE, Severson PL, Hohsfield LA, Crapser J, Zhang J, Burton B, Zhang Y, Spevak W, Lin J, Habets G, Rymar A, Tsang G, Walters J, Nespi M, Singh P, Broome S, Ibrahim P, Zhang C, Bollag G, West BL, and Green KNNature Communications 10, Article number: 3758 (2019) Click Here to Download   Click Here to Download Supplemental Information

Microglia Regulate Pruning of Specialized Synapses in the Auditory Brainstem.
Milinkeviciute G, Henningfield CM, Muniak MA, Chokr SM, Green KN, Cramer KS. Frontiers in Neural Circuits  Click Here to View



Replacement of Microglia in the Aged Brain Reverses Cognitive, Synaptic, and Neuronal Deficits in Mice.
Elmore MRP, Hohsfield LA, Kramár EA, Soreq L, Lee RJ, Pham ST, Najafi AR, Wood MA, West BL, and Green KN. Aging Cell, 2018 Dec;17(6):e12832 Click Here to Download

A limited capacity for microglial repopulation in the adult brain.
Najafi AR, Crapser J, Jiang S, Ng W, Mortazavi A, West BL, and Green KN. Glia. 2018 Nov;66(11):2385-2396  Click Here to Download 

Gamma oscillations in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit underlying memory and dementia.
Nakazono T, Jun H, Blurton-Jones M, Green KN, Igarashi KM. Neurosci Res. 2018 Apr;129:40-46. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2018.02.002



Microglial repopulation resolves inflammation and promotes brain recovery after injury.
Rice RA, Pham J, Lee RJ, Najafi AR, West BL, Green KN. Glia. 2017 Mar 2. doi: 10.1002/glia.23135  Click Here to Download 

Necroptosis activation in Alzheimer's disease.
Caccamo A, Branca C, Piras IS, Ferreira E, Huentelman MJ, Liang WS, Readhead B, Dudley JT, Spangenberg EE, Green KN, Belfiore R, Winslow W, Oddo S. Nat Neurosci. 2017 Jul 24. doi: 10.1038/nn.4608.

Prevention of C5aR1 signaling delays microglial inflammatory polarization, favors clearance pathways and suppresses cognitive loss.
Hernandez MX, Jiang S, Cole TA, Chu SH, Fonseca MI, Fang MJ, Hohsfield LA, Torres MD, Green KN, Wetsel RA, Mortazavi A, Tenner AJ. Mol Neurodegener. 2017 Sep 18;12(1):66.



Chronic elimination of microglia in the 5xfAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease attenuates dendritic spine loss and cognitive impairments without modulating amyloid pathology.
Spangenberg EE, Rice RA, Elmore MRP, Blurton-Jones M, West BL, Green KN.  Brain. In Press  Click Here to Download

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease: Lessons learned from microglia-depletion models.
Spangenberg EE, Green KN. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Mar;61:1-11. Click Here to Download

Elimination of microglia improves cognitive function following cranial irradiation.
Acharya MM, Green KN, Allen BD, Najafi AR, Syage A, Minasyan H, Le MT, Kawashita T, Giedzinski E, Parihar VK, West BL, Baulch JE, Limoli CL. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 12;6:31545. doi: 10.1038/srep31545.



Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibition prevents plaque-associated microglia and improves cognition in 3xTg-AD mice.
Dagher NN*, Najafi AR*, Neely Kayala KM, Elmore MRP, White T, Medeiros R, West BL, and Green KN. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2015, 12:139 Click here to Download

Elimination of microglia improves functional outcomes following extensive neuronal loss in the hippocampus.
Rice RA, Spangenberg EE, Yamate-Morgan H, Lee RJ, Arora RPS, Hernandez MX, Tenner AJ, West BL, and Green KN. Journal of Neuroscience8 July 2015, 35(27):9977-9989 Click Here to Download

Short-term modern life-like stress exacerbates Aβ-pathology and synapse loss in 3xTg-AD mice.
Baglietto-Vargas D, Chen Y, Suh D, Ager RR, Rodriguez-Ortiz CJ, Medeiros R, Myczek K, Green KN, Baram TZ, LaFerla FM.  J Neurochem. 2015 Jun 16

Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.
Elmore MR, Lee RJ, West BL, Green KNPLoS One. 2015 Apr 7;10(4):e0122912 Click Here to Download



Optical imaging in an Alzheimer's mouse model reveals amyloid-β-dependent vascular impairment.
Lin AJ, Liu G, Castello NA, Yeh JJ, Rahimian R, Lee G, Tsay V, Durkin AJ, Choi B, LaFerla FM, Chen Z, Green KN, Tromberg BJ. Neurophotonics. 2014 Jul;1(1):011005.

CSF1 receptor signaling is necessary for microglia viability, which unmasks a cell that rapidly repopulates the microglia-depleted adult brain.
Elmore MRP, Najafi AR, Koike MA, Dagher NN, Spangenberg EE, Rice RA, Kitazawa M, Matusow B, Nguyen H, West BL, Green KN.   Neuron. Volume 82, Issue 2, 16 April 2014, Pages 380–397 Click Here to Download   Click Here to Download Supplemental Information

  • Editorial write-up and preview: Hughes EG, Berglesemail DE. Hidden Progenitors Replace Microglia in the Adult Brain.  Neuron. 16 April 2014.
  • Editorial write-up and recommendation: Berndt J. Microglial Progenitors Lie in Wait. Sci. Signal. 22 April 2014
  • Editorial write-up and recommendation: Whalley K. Microglial maintenance. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 353 (2014)),
  • Editorial Feature: Rogers MG. Microglial Magic: Drug Wipes Them Out, New Set Appears. Alzforum (

7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, a small molecule TrkB agonist, improves spatial memory and increases thin spine density in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease-like neuronal loss.
Castello NA, Nguyen MH, Tran JD, Cheng D, Green KN, LaFerla FM. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 10;9(3):e91453

Synergistic effects of amyloid-beta and wild-type human tau on dendritic spine loss in a floxed double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.
Chabrier MA, Cheng D, Castello NA, Green KN, Laferla FM. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Jan 14;64C:107-117



Mifepristone alters APP processing to preclude Aβ and also reduces tau pathology.
Baglietto-Vargas D, Medeiros R, Martinez-Coria H, LaFerla FM and Green KN. Biological Psychiatry 2013 Jan 8.  Click Here to Download

Age-related downregulation of the CaV3.1 T-type calcium channel as a mediator of Aß production.
Rice R, Berchtold NC, Cotman CW and Green KNNeurobiology of Aging – 2013 Oct 30. Click Here to Download

Endogenous murine tau promotes neurofibrillary tangles in 3xTg-AD mice without affecting cognition.
Baglietto-Vargas D, Kitazawa M, Le EJ, Estrada-Hernandez T, Rodriguez-Ortiz CJ, Medeiros R, Green KN, Laferla FM. Neurobiol Dis. 2013 Oct 29;62C:407-415

α7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist Enhances Cognition in Aged 3xTg-AD Mice with Robust Plaques and Tangles.
Medeiros R, Castello NA, Cheng D, Kitazawa M, Baglietto-Vargas D, Green KN, Esbenshade TA, Bitner RS, Decker MW, Laferla FM. Am J Pathol. 2013 Nov 19

In vivo optical signatures of neuronal death in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Lin AJ, Castello NA, Lee G, Green KN, Durkin AJ, Choi B, Laferla F, Tromberg BJ. Lasers Surg Med. 2013 Nov 28



Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease.
Green KN and LaFerla FM. The Biology of Alzheimer Disease.

Calpain Inhibitor A-705253 Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology and Cognitive Decline in Aged 3xTgAD Mice.
Medeiros R, Kitazawa M, Chabrier MA, Cheng D, Baglietto-Vargas D, Kling A, Moeller A, Green KN, Laferla FM. Am J Pathol. 2012 Aug;181(2):616-25. Epub 2012 Jun 9.

Swedish Alzheimer's mutation induces mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by HSP60 mislocalization of APP and beta-amyloid. J
Walls KC, Coskun P, Gallegos-Perez JL, Zadourian N, Freude K, Rasool S, Blurton-Jones M, Green KN, Laferla FM. Biol Chem. 2012 Jun 29.

Genetic Knockdown of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in 3xTg-AD Mice Does Not Alter Aβ or Tau Pathology.
Castello NA, Green KN, Laferla FM. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e39566.

APP Knockout Mice Experience Acute Mortality as the Result of Ischemia.
Koike MA, Lin AJ, Pham J, Nguyen E, Yeh JJ, Rahimian R, Tromberg BJ, Choi B, Green KN*, LaFerla FM*.  PLoS ONE 2012;7(8): e42665.  * corresponding author

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Klionsky D et al., Autophagy. 2012 Apr;8(4):445-544.

Presenilin-null cells have altered two-pore calcium channel expression and lysosomal calcium: Implications for lysosomal function.
Neely Kayala KM, Dickinson GD, Minassian A, Walls KC, Green KN*, Laferla FM. Brain Res. 2012 Dec 13;1489:8-16. * corresponding author



Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging of Intrinsic Optical Property Contrast in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Lin AJ, Koike MA, Green KN, Kim JG, Mazhar A, Rice TB, Laferla FM, Tromberg BJ. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 Feb 19.

Presenilin is necessary for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy-lysosome system in a γ-secretase independent manner.
Neely K, Green KN*, LaFerla FM*. Journal of Neuroscience.  2011 Feb 23;31(8):2781-91.  * corresponding author

ST101 induces a novel 17-kDa APP cleavage that precludes Aß generation in vivo.
Green KN*, Khashwji H, Estrada T, and LaFerla FM*. Annals of Neurology. 2011 Mar 17 * corresponding author

Transient cerebral ischemia induces long-term alterations in phosphorylated APP and tau aggregates.
Koike MA, Garcia FG, Kitazawa, M, Green KN*, LaFerla FM*.   Neurosci Lett. 2011 Mar 22.  * corresponding author

Presenilins mediate efficient proteolysis via the autophagosome-lysosome system.
Neely KM and Green KNAutophagy.  Autophagy. 2011 Jun 1;7(6).



Formulation of a medical food cocktail for Alzheimer's disease:  beneficial effects on cognition and neuropathology in a mouse model of the disease.
Parachikova A, Green KN, Hendrix C and LaFerla FM. PLoS ONE. 2010 Nov 5(11): e14015.

Advances in Our Understanding of the Patholophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease. 
Green KN
and Schreiber SS.  US Neurology.  2010 Aug

Minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, restores cognition and reduces pathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Parachikova A, Visilevko V, Cribbs D, LaFerla FM, Green KN.  Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2010 June 1;21(2):527-42.

Oligemic hypoperfusion differentially affects tau and amyloid-_ pathology.
Koike MA*, Green KN*, Blurton-Jones M, LaFerla F. Am J Pathol. 2010 May 14  * = equal contribution



Memantine improves cognition and reduces Alzheimer's-like neuropathology in transgenic mice.
Martinez-Coria H, Green KN, Billings Luhrs L, Kitazawa M, Albrecht M, Rammes G, Parsons C, Gupta S, Banerjee P, LaFerla FM.  Am J Pathol. 2009 Dec 30.

IKK phosphorylates Huntingtin and targets it for degradation by the proteasome and lysosome.
Thompson LM, Aiken CT, Kaltenbach LS, Agrawal N, Illes K, Khoshnan A, Martinez-Vincente M, Arrasate M, O'Rourke JG, Khashwji H, Lukacsovich T, Zhu YZ, Lau AL, Massey A, Hayden MR, Zeitlin SO, Finkbeiner S, Green KN, LaFerla FM, Bates G, Huang L, Patterson PH, Lo DC, Cuervo AM, Marsh JL, Steffan JS. J Cell Biol. 2009 Dec 28;187(7):1083-99.

Calcium in the initiation, progression and as an effector of Alzheimer's disease pathology.
Green KN
.  J Cell Mol Med. 2009 Jul 24.  Invited Review.

Phosphorylation of threonine 3: implications for Huntingtin aggregation and neurotoxicity.
Aiken CT, Steffan JS, Guerrero CM, Khashwji H, Lukacsovich T, Simmons D, Purcell JM, Menhaji K, Zhu YZ, Green K, Laferla F, Huang L, Thompson LM, Marsh JL.  J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 23;284(43):29427-36.

Neural stem cells improve cognition via BDNF in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.
Blurton-Jones M, Kitazawa M, Martinez-Coria H, Castello NA, Müller FJ, Loring JF, Yamasaki TR, Poon WW, Green KN, Laferla FM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 24.



Nicotinamide restores cognition in AD transgenic mice via a mechanism involving sirtuin inhibition and selective reduction of Thr231-phosphotau. 
Green KN
, Steffan JS, Martinez-Coria H, Thompson LM, Schreiber SS, LaFerla FM.  Journal of Neuroscience. 2008 Nov 5;28(45):11500-10

Relevance of transgenic mouse models to human Alzheimer disease.
Morrissette DA, Parachikova A, Green KN, Laferla FM.  J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 22.

Linking Calcium to Abeta and Alzheimer's disease. 
Green KN
* and LaFerla FM*.  Neuron 2008 July 31; * corresponding author

Presenilin as a physiological regulator of SERCA pump activity.
Green KN
, Demuro A, Hitt BD, Smith IF, Parker I, LaFerla FM. Journal of Cell Biology 2008 Jun 30;181(7):1107-16.

Impact of Ab and tau on cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.
Koike MA, Myczek K, Green KN, LaFerla FM.  Animal Models of Human Cognitive Aging (2008).



Green KN, Smith IF, LaFerla FM. Role of calcium in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and transgenic models. Calcium signaling and disease 507-521. 2007

Clinton LK, Billings LM, Green KN, Caccamo A, Ngo J, Oddo S, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM.

LaFerla FM, Green KN, Oddo S.  Intracellular A_ in Alzheimer Disease.  Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2007 Jul;8(7):499-509.

Green KN, Martinez-Coria H, Hall EB, Yurko-Mauro KA, Ellis L, LaFerla FM.  Dietary DHA and DPAn-6 Ameliorate Amyloid-ß and Tau Pathology via a Mechanism Involving Presenilin 1 Levels. Journal of Neuroscience. 2007 April 18

Tseng BP, Green KN, Chan JL, Blurton-Jones M, LaFerla FM.  A_ Mediated Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Impairments Exacerbate Pathogenic Amyloid and Tau Accumulation in Alzheimer Disease. Neurobiology of Aging. 2007 May 31

Billings LM*, Green KN*, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM. Learning decreases Abeta*56, tau pathology, and ameliorates behavioral decline in 3xTg-AD mice. Journal of Neuroscience. 2007 Jan 24;27(4):751-61. * equal contribution



Green KN, Billings LM, Roozendaal B, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM.  Glucocorticoids increase A≤ and tau pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuroscience. 2006 Aug 30;26(35):9047-56.

Kitazawa M, Green KN, Caccamo A, LaFerla FM.  Genetically Augmenting A{beta}42 Levels in Skeletal Muscle Exacerbates Inclusion Body Myositis-Like Pathology and Motor Deficits in Transgenic Mice. American Journal of Pathology. 2006 Jun;168(6):1986-97.

Caccamo A, Oddo S, Billings LM, Green KN, Martinez-Coria H, Fisher A, Laferla FM. M1 Receptors Play a Central Role in Modulating AD-like Pathology in Transgenic Mice. Neuron. 2006 Mar 2;49(5):671-82.

Kitazawa M, Oddo S, Yamasaki TR, Green KN, LaFerla FM.  LPS-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cdk5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer`s disease. Journal of Neuroscience. Sept 21, 2005 25(38) 8843-53.

Oddo S, Caccamo A, Smith IF, Green KN & LaFerla FM.  A dynamic relationship between intracellular and extracellular pools of Abeta. American Journal of Pathology. 2006 Jan;168(1):184-94.


2005 - 2000

Peers C, Scragg JL, Boyle JP, Fearon IM, Taylor SC, Green KN, Webster NJ, Ramsden M, Pearson HA.  A central role for ROS in the functional remodelling of L-type Ca2+ channels by hypoxia.  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 29;360(1464):2247-54.

Smith IF, Green KN & LaFerla FM. Ca2+ dysregulation and Alzheimer's disease: Recent advances gained from genetically modified animals. Cell Calcium. 2005 Sep-Oct;38(3-4):427-37.

Smith IF, Hitt BD, Green KN, Oddo S, LaFerla FM. Enhanced Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in a 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2005 Sep;94(6):1711-8.

Billings LM, Oddo S, Green KN, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM. Intraneuronal Aß causes the onset of early Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits in transgenic mice. Neuron 2005, Vol 45, 675-688

Oddo S, Caccamo A, Green KN, Liang K, Tran L, Chen Y, Leslie FM, LaFerla FM. Chronic Nicotine Administration Exacerbates Tau Pathology in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22;102(8):3046-51.

Webster NJ, Green KN, Settle VJ, Peers C, Vaughan PF. Altered processing of the amyloid precursor protein and decreased expression of ADAM 10 by chronic hypoxia in SH-SY5Y: no role for the stress-activated JNK and p38 signalling pathways. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004 Nov 4;130(1-2):161-9.

Akbari Y, Hitt BD, Murphy MP, Dagher NN, Tseng BP, Green KN, Golde TE, LaFerla FM. Presenilin regulates capacitative calcium entry dependently and independently of gamma-secretase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Oct 1;322(4):1145-52.

Smith IF, Boyle JP, Green KN, Pearson HA, Peers C. Hypoxic remodelling of Ca2+ mobilization in type I cortical astrocytes: involvement of ROS and pro-amyloidogenic APP processing. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2004 Feb;88(4):869-77.

Peers C, Green KN, Boyle JP.  Amyloid peptide-mediated hypoxic regulation of Ca2+ channels in PC12 cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 536:187-92.

Giles GI, Fry FH, Tasker KM, Holme AL, Peers C, Green KN, Klotz LO, Sies H, Jacob C.  Evaluation of sulfur, selenium and tellurium catalysts with antioxidant potential. Org Biomol Chem. 2003 Dec 7;1(23):4317-22. 2003 Nov 04.

Webster NJ, Green KN, Peers C, Vaughan PF.  Altered processing of amyloid precursor protein in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by chronic hypoxia. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2002 Dec;83(6):1262-71.

Giles GI, Tasker KM, Johnson RJ, Jacob C, Peers C, Green KN. Electrochemistry of chalcogen compounds: prediction of antioxidant activity. Chem Commun. 2001 Dec 7;(23):2490-1.

Green KN, Boyle JP, Peers C.  Hypoxia potentiates exocytosis and Ca2+ channels in PC12 cells via increased amyloid beta peptide formation and reactive oxygen species generation. Journal of Physiology. 2002 Jun 15;541(Pt 3):1013-23.

Green KN, Peers C.  Divergent pathways account for two distinct effects of amyloid beta peptides on exocytosis and Ca(2+) currents: involvement of ROS and NF-kappaB. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2002 Jun;81(5):1043-51.

Green KN, Peers C. Amyloid beta peptides mediate hypoxic augmentation of Ca(2+) channels. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2001 May;77(3):953-6.

Green KN, Taylor SC, Smith IF, Peers C. Differential coupling of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels to catecholamine secretion from separate PC12 cell batches. Neuroscience Letters. 2001 Mar 23;301(1):13-6.

Taylor SC, Green KN, Carpenter E, Peers C.  Protein kinase C evokes quantal catecholamine release from PC12 cells via activation of L-type Ca2+ channels. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2000 Sep 1;275(35):26786-91.

Taylor SC, Green KN, Smith IF, Peers C. Prion protein fragment 106-126 potentiates catecholamine secretion from PC-12 cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Dec;281(6):C1850-7.